Integrated
Plant Protection Center at Oregon State
University


LIBRARY OF DEGREE-DAY MODELS FOR INSECTS AND PLANTS

for pest management decision making in Oregon

INTRODUCTION
As degree-day models for specific insects and plants are placed on-line, appropriate documentation will be placed in this page. Wherever possible, the original published references have been used to prepare this documentation. In some cases, data are too new to have been published and will be presented here or within linked pages. In other cases, the summary information prepared by the University of California at Davis has been repeated here if appropriate.

Disclaimer: No claims are made as to the correctness or appropriateness of this information for your particular needs. No specific pest control products are intended for endorsement or use. This responsibility rests solely with the people who interpret and implement information from this and other sources. Use all predictive information with caution - errors occur, and predictive models do not replace the need for proper monitoring in the field. If you observe conditions that differ substantially from model predictions, please contact us to determine if the model inputs were incorrect, if the model functioning or weather data are in error, or if the model is inappropriate for your conditions.


LIBRARY OF SELECTED INSECT & CROP MODELS DOCUMENTED
small broomrape (weed pest of red clover)
bertha armyworm (vegetables and peppermint)
black cutworm (vegetables)
cabbage looper (vegetables)
codling moth (apple and pear)
european pine shoot moth (ornamental)
filbertworm (hazelnut)
obliquebanded leafroller (hazelnut & small fruits)
obliquebanded leafroller (tree fruits)
orange tortrix (small fruits)
Pandemis leafroller (tree fruits)
strawberry root weevil (peppermint)
sweet corn
variegated cutworm (peppermint)
western cherry fruit fly (cherry)
walnut husk fly (stone fruits)

black cutworm - under construction


cabbage looper - under construction


orange tortrix - under construction


Small Broomrape Model (Colquhoun in press)

PRIMARY REFERENCE: Weed Science in press
ADDITIONAL WEB REFERENCE: ODA - Noxious Weed Control Program - Orobanche minor

MODEL SUMMARY VERSION:  Colquhoun 2004
LOCATION OF STUDY:  Willamette Valley, Oregon (laboratory plus 3 years field studies)
HOST: red clover (PNW Weed Management Handbook page)
DEVELOPMENTAL THRESHOLDS
  LOWER:  32F  (0 C)
  UPPER:  none
METHOD OF CALCULATION: simple average (also known as growing degree-days for agronomic crops)
CUTOFF METHOD:	none
DEGREE-DAY ACCUMULATIONS REQUIRED FOR EACH STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT
      HOST:  red clover
      BIOFIX:  Jan 1

                                          DD (F)     DD (C)
  INITIAL ATTACHMENT TO RED CLOVER:        720        400
  BEGINNING OF HERBICIDE APPLIC. WINDOW*: 1440        800
  (majority of small broomrape attached 
   to host, no emerged parasites)
  END OF HERBICIDE APPLIC. WINDOW*:       1800       1000
  SMALL BROOMRAPE FLOWER STALK EMERGENCE: 1980       1100
  BEGINNING OF RED CLOVER GROWTH
    REDUCTION DUE TO PARASITISM:          2160       1200

  *NOTE: check herbicide pregrazing and preharvest intervals prior to any application
Summary and Background:
Small broomrape is an annual, parasitic weed that was discovered in red clover seed production near Canby in 1998, and since has spread rapidly through clover production in the Willamette Valley. It spends about 5 months below ground attached to the host, emerges in late-spring, and produces about 1 million dust-like seeds per stalk 3 weeks or so after emergence. Thus, the difficulty is in discovering the below ground attachments in a field prior to emergence so that they can be controlled early enough to prevent yield loss or seed production. Postemergence control does not work well given that viable seed is produced 3 weeks after emergence. With this in mind, we conducted controlled environment studies to characterize small broomrape development on red clover relative to temperature. The model was validated with 3 years of field observations in red clover near Aurora, OR, and was pretty accurate in all years. We used a GDD base of 0 C and began GDD accumulation on January 1.

Bertha Armyworm (Bailey 1976)

PRIMARY REFERENCE:
Bailey 1976 - Abstract

OTHER MODEL REFERENCES AT: Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada

MODEL SUMMARY VERSION:  Bailey, C. G. 1976.
Temperature effects on non-diapause development in Mamestra configurata
(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Can. Ent. 108: 1339-1344.
LOCATION OF STUDY:  Winnipeg, Canada (laboratory studies)
HOST: artificial diet
DEVELOPMENTAL THRESHOLDS
  LOWER:  45F  (7.0C)
  UPPER:  93F  (34.0C)
METHOD OF CALCULATION:  not specified (assume single sine)
CUTOFF METHOD:			not specified (assume horizontal)
DEGREE-DAY ACCUMULATIONS REQUIRED FOR EACH STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT
      HOST:  Broccoli
      SET OUT TRAPS:  May 1 (or earlier)
      BIOFIX:  May 15 (Default, or use first peak trap counts)

                                          DD (F)     DD (C)
  BEGINNING OF EGG-LAYING:                175.0       97.2
  (not included; assume 7 days from misc sources)
  BEGINNING OF EGG HATCH:                 325.0      180.6
  BEGINNING OF 4th INSTAR LARVAE:         560.0      311.1
  BEGINNING OF 5th INSTAR LARVAE:         630.0      350.1
  BEGINNING OF 6th INSTAR LARVAE:         725.0      402.8
  BEGINNING OF PUPAE:                     965.0      536.1
  BEGINNING ADULT EMERGENCE:             1600.0      888.9
  BEGINNING 2ND GENERATION EGG-LAYING:   1800.0     1000.0

Codling Moth Model (Brunner & Hoyt 1987)

PRIMARY REFERENCE:
Brunner and Hoyt 1987 - Excerpts

OTHER MODEL REFERENCES AT: U. C. Davis Catalog of Phenology Models: Codling Moth

MODEL SUMMARY VERSION: Brunner, J. F. and S. C. Hoyt. 1987.
Codling Moth Control - A New Tool For Timing Sprays.
Washington State University Cooperative Extension Bulletin 1072
LOCATION OF STUDY:  Washington
DEVELOPMENTAL THRESHOLDS
  LOWER:  50.0F  (10.0C)
  UPPER:  88.0F  (31.1C)
METHOD OF CALCULATION:  Single Sine
CUTOFF METHOD:          Horizontal
DEGREE-DAY ACCUMULATIONS REQUIRED FOR EACH STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT
  HOST:  Apple and pear                  DD (F)     DD (C)
  GENERATION TIME (EGG TO EGG):           880.0      488.9
  GENERATION TIME (50% EGG HATCH TO SAME 1096.0      608.9
  
  SET OUT TRAPS:  150 DD after January 1
  BIOFIX:  First consistent or large (3-4 in a single trap)
           catch of adults in the phermone trap - input by user
		   or default set at April 15
		   
                                         DD (F)     DD (C)
  3% EGG HATCH (1ST GEN):                 250.0      138.9
  20% EGG HATCH(1ST GEN):                 360.0      200.0
  50% EGG HATCH(1ST GEN):                 484.0      268.9
  75% EGG HATCH(1ST GEN):                 610.0      338.9
  95% EGG HATCH(1ST GEN):                 800.0      444.4
  5% ADULT EMERGENCE (2ND GEN):          1000.0      555.6
  7% EGG HATCH (2ND GEN):                1260.0      700.0
  30% EGG HATCH(2ND GEN):                1460.0      811.1
  50% EGG HATCH(2ND GEN):                1580.0      877.8
  75% EGG HATCH(2ND GEN):                1750.0      972.2
  95% EGG HATCH(2ND GEN):                2000.0     1111.1
  

European Pine Shoot Moth Model (Regan et al. 1991)

PRIMARY REFERENCE:
Regan et al. 1991 - Abstract

OTHER MODEL REFERENCES AT: none available at this time

MODEL SUMMARY VERSION: Regan, R. P., J. D. De Angelis, and G. Gredler. 1991.
Predicting Seasonal Flight of European Pine Shoot Moth (Lepidoptera:
Tortricidae) in Western Oregon. Environ. Entomol. 20(5): 1403-1406.

LOCATION OF STUDY:  near Salem, Oregon
DEVELOPMENTAL THRESHOLDS
  LOWER:  28.0F  (-2.2C)
  UPPER:  none used
METHOD OF CALCULATION:  Single Sine
CUTOFF METHOD:          none used
DEGREE-DAY ACCUMULATIONS REQUIRED FOR EACH STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT
  HOST:  Pinus spp.                      DD (F)     DD (C)
  
  SET OUT TRAPS:  150 DD after January 1
  BIOFIX:  January 1
		   
                                         DD (F)     DD (C)
  FIRST MOTH CATCH IN TRAPS:            2970.0     1650.0
  10% MOTH CATCH IN TRAPS:              3081.0     1712.0
  50% MOTH CATCH IN TRAPS:              3524.0     1958.0
  75% MOTH CATCH IN TRAPS:              3816.0     2120.0
  90% MOTH CATCH IN TRAPS:              3969.0     2205.0

Filbertworm Model (AliNiazee 1983)

PRIMARY REFERENCE:
AliNiazee 1983 - Complete

OTHER MODEL REFERENCES AT: none available at this time

MODEL SUMMARY VERSION: AliNiazee, M. T. 1983.
A Degree-Day Method for Predicting the Filbertworm Emergence.
Proc. Nut Growers Soc. of Oreg. Wash and Brit. Columbia. Vol. 68:37-39.

LOCATION OF STUDY:  Willamette Valley, Oregon
DEVELOPMENTAL THRESHOLDS
  LOWER:  51.0F  (10.55C)
  UPPER:  none used
METHOD OF CALCULATION:  Simple Averaging (also known as Max-min method)
CUTOFF METHOD:          none used
DEGREE-DAY ACCUMULATIONS REQUIRED FOR EACH STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT
  HOST:  Hazelnut (Filbert)
  SET OUT TRAPS:  ca. 500 DD after April 1
  BIOFIX:  April 1
		   
                                         DD (F)     DD (C)
  EARLIEST RECORDED MOTH EMERGENCE:      580.0      322.2
  AVERAGE FIRST MOTH EMERGENCE:          610.0      338.9
  EARLIEST RECORDED PEAK MOTH EMERGENCE:1158.0      643.3
  AVERAGE PEAK MOTH EMERGENCE:          1188.0      660.0
  LATEST RECORDED PEAK MOTH EMERGENCE:  1217.0      676.1

Obliquebanded leafroller Model (Gangavalli & AliNiazee 1985)

PRIMARY REFERENCE:
Gangavalli & AliNiazee 1985 - Abstract

OTHER MODEL REFERENCES AT: none available at this time

MODEL SUMMARY VERSION: 1. Gangavalli & AliNiazee, M. T. 1985. Temperature requirements
for development of the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Lepidoptera:
Tortricidae). Environ. Entomol. 14:17-19.
2. AliNiazee, M. T. 1986. Seasonal history, adult flight activity, and damage of the
obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Can.
Ent. 118:353-361.

LOCATION OF STUDY:  Willamette Valley, Oregon
DEVELOPMENTAL THRESHOLDS
  LOWER:  50.0F  (10.0C)
  UPPER:  90.0F  (32.0C)
METHOD OF CALCULATION:  Single Sine
CUTOFF METHOD:          horizontal
DEGREE-DAY ACCUMULATIONS REQUIRED FOR EACH STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT
  HOST:  Filbert (hazelnut)
  SET OUT TRAPS:  ca. 200 DD(F) after March 1
  BIOFIX:  March 1
		   
                                         DD (F)     DD (C)
  50% OVERWINTERING LARVAE OUT
    OF DIAPAUSE:                          80.0      44.4
  PEAK MOLT 5TH-6TH LARVAL INSTAR;      
    75% LARVAE OUT OF DIAPAUSE           245.0     136.1 
  100% LARVAE OUT OF DIAPAUSE            310.0     172.2
  5% CATCH IN PHEROMONE TRAPS            450.0     250.0
  20% CATCH IN PHEROMONE TRAPS           510.0     283.3
  50% CATCH IN PHEROMONE TRAPS           655.0     363.9
  75% CATCH IN PHEROMONE TRAPS           830.0     461.1
  FIRST EGGLAYING 1ST GENERATION         535.0     297.2
  PEAK EGGLAYING 1ST GENERATION;        
    80% CATCH IN PHEROMONE TRAPS         735.0     408.3
  PEAK EGGHATCH 1ST GENERATION           935.0     519.4
  PEAK 3RD INSTAR (SMALL LARVAE)        1230.0     683.3
  PEAK 6TH INSTAR (LARGE LARVAE)        1590.0     883.3
  1ST GENERATION - FIRST CATCH IN TRAPS 1690.0     938.9
  2ND GENERATION - FIRST EGGS LAID      1775.0     986.1
  1ST GENERATION - 50% CATCH IN TRAPS   1850.0    1027.8
  GENERATION TIME (EGG TO EGG)          1240.0     689.9

Obliquebanded leafroller Model (Brunner et al. (1997))

PRIMARY REFERENCE:
Brunner et al. (1997)

OTHER MODEL REFERENCES AT: none available at this time

MODEL SUMMARY VERSION: 1. Brunner et al. 1997. Leafroller models: 
predicting development and timing controls. 
Washington State University Cooperative Extension
AREAWIDE IPM UPDATE. Vol. 2, No. 7 - June 1, 1997

LOCATION OF STUDY:  Milton-Freewater, Oregon
DEVELOPMENTAL THRESHOLDS
  LOWER:  43.0F  (6.1C)
  UPPER:  85.0F  (29.4C)
METHOD OF CALCULATION:  Single Sine
CUTOFF METHOD:          vertical (warning: OSU Degree-Day Models do not include
                        vertical cut-off method at this time; use horizontal method
                        with caution)
DEGREE-DAY ACCUMULATIONS REQUIRED FOR EACH STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT
  HOST:  apple
  SET OUT TRAPS:  ca. 1000 DD(F) after March 1
  BIOFIX:  first catch in pheromone traps
		   
                                         DD (F)    DD (C)
  50% CATCH IN PHEROMONE TRAPS           140.0      77.8
  75% CATCH IN PHEROMONE TRAPS           250.0     138.9
  90% CATCH IN PHEROMONE TRAPS           380.0     211.1
  95% CATCH IN PHEROMONE TRAPS,
   1% EGG HATCH                          440.0     244.4
  97% CATCH IN PHEROMONE TRAPS,
  25% EGG HATCH                          535.0     297.2
  98% CATCH IN PHEROMONE TRAPS,
  50% EGG HATCH                          585.0     325.0
  75% EGG HATCH                          655.0     363.9
  95% EGG HATCH                          780.0     433.3
  MOSTLY SMALL LARVAE PRESENT            900.0     500.0
  MOSTLY LARGE LARVAE PRESENT           1200.0     666.7
  MOSTLY PUPAE PRESENT                  1400.0     777.8
   5% CATCH IN NEXT GENERATION          1480.0     822.2
  25% CATCH IN NEXT GENERATION          1680.0     933.3
  50% CATCH IN NEXT GENERATION,
   1% EGG HATCH                         1890.0    1050.0
  68% CATCH IN NEXT GENERATION,
  25% EGG HATCH                         2050.0    1138.9
  79% CATCH IN NEXT GENERATION,
  50% EGG HATCH                         2170.0    1205.6
  95% CATCH IN NEXT GENERATION,
  95% EGG HATCH                         2530.0    1405.6



Pandemis leafroller Model (Brunner 1991)

PRIMARY REFERENCE:
Brunner 1991

OTHER MODEL REFERENCES AT: none available at this time

MODEL SUMMARY VERSION: 1. Brunner J. 1991. Leafroller pests of fruit crops
 in Washington State. In New Directions in Tree Fruit Pest Management.
 Good Fruit Grower. pp 185-198.

LOCATION OF STUDY:  Wenatchee, Washington
DEVELOPMENTAL THRESHOLDS
  LOWER:  41.0F  (5.0C)
  UPPER:  85.0F  (29.4C)
METHOD OF CALCULATION:  Single Sine
CUTOFF METHOD:          vertical (warning: OSU Degree-Day Models do not include
                        vertical cut-off method at this time; use horizontal method
                        with caution)
DEGREE-DAY ACCUMULATIONS REQUIRED FOR EACH STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT
  HOST:  Apple and Pear
  SET OUT TRAPS:  ca. 700 DD(F) after March 1
  BIOFIX:  March 1
		   
                                         DD (F)    DD (C)
  FIRST CATCH IN PHEROMONE TRAPS         930.0     516.6
  50% MOTH EMERGENCE                    1160.0     644.4
  95% MOTH EMERGENCE                    1430.0     794.4
  FIRST EGG HATCH                       1280.0     711.1
  50% EGG HATCH                         1345.0     747.2
  FIRST MOTH (2ND FLIGHT)               2250.0    1250.0
  50% MOTH EMERGENCE (2ND FLIGHT)       2750.0    1527.8
  95% MOTH EMERGENCE (2ND FLIGHT)       3300.0    1833.3
  FIRST EGG HATCH (2ND GENERATION)      2870.0    1594.4
  50% EGG HATCH (2ND GENERATION)        3025.0    1680.6

Strawberry Root Weevil Model (Cacka 1983)

PRIMARY REFERENCE:
Cacka 1982 - Abstract

OTHER MODEL REFERENCES AT: none available at this time

MODEL SUMMARY VERSION: Cacka J. F. 1982.
Biology, distribution and economic threshold of the strawberry
root weevil, Oriorhynchus ovatus (L.), in peppermint.
M. S. Thesis, Dept. Entomology, Oregon State University.
LOCATION OF STUDY:  Central Oregon
DEVELOPMENTAL THRESHOLDS
  LOWER:  48.0F  (8.89C)
  UPPER:  103.0F (39.4C)
METHOD OF CALCULATION:  Single Sine
CUTOFF METHOD:          horizontal
DEGREE-DAY ACCUMULATIONS REQUIRED FOR EACH STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT
  HOST:  Peppermint
  SET OUT TRAPS:  none
  BIOFIX:  January 1
		   
                                         DD (F)     DD (C)
  OVERWINTERING LARVAE OUT OF DIAPAUSE:  225.0      125.2
  PUPAL DEVELOPMENT BEGINS:              375.0      208.3
  TENERAL ADULT DEVELOPMENT BEGINS:      500.0      277.8
  PEAK ADULT EMERGENCE:                  700.0      388.9
  PEAK EGGLAYING:                        950.0      527.8
  PEAK EGG HATCH:                       1200.0      666.7
  EGG HATCH NEARLY COMPLETED:           1300.0      722.2

Strawberry Root Weevil Model (Umble and Fisher 2000)

PRIMARY REFERENCE:
Umble and Fisher 2000 - Full Publication

OTHER MODEL REFERENCES AT: none available at this time

MODEL SUMMARY VERSION: 
1. J. R. Umble and J. R. Fisher 2000.
Temperature-Dependent Development of Otiorhynchus ovatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Pupae
Environmental Entomology: 29:758-765.
2. J. R. Umble and J. R. Fisher 2002.
Influence of Temperature and Photoperiod on Preoviposition Duration and Oviposition 
of Otiorhynchus ovatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am 95:231-235.

LOCATION OF STUDY: Western Oregon (Willamette Valley) DEVELOPMENTAL THRESHOLDS LOWER: 40.0F (4.3C) UPPER: none METHOD OF CALCULATION: Single Sine CUTOFF METHOD: not applicable (mortality occurred at 91.4F [33C]) DEGREE-DAY ACCUMULATIONS REQUIRED FOR EACH STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT HOST: strawberry SET OUT TRAPS: none BIOFIX: February 15 NOTES: Oviposition lower threshold 64.4F (18C) DD (F) DD (C) PUPAL DEVELOPMENT BEGINS: 564.3 313.5 BEGINNING OF ADULT EMERGENCE: 1055.9 586.6 BEGINNING OF EGGLAYING: 1497.6 832.0 BEGINNING OF END OF EGGLAYING: 1796.4 998.0


Sweet corn (Jubilee) Model (Coop et al. 1993)

PRIMARY REFERENCE:
Coop et al. 1993 - Excerpts

OTHER MODEL REFERENCES AT: none available at this time

MODEL SUMMARY VERSION: L. B. Coop, B. A. Croft, and R. J. Drapek. 1993.
Model of Corn Earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Development, Damage,
and Crop Loss in Sweet Corn. J. Econ. Entomol. 86(3): 906-916.

LOCATION OF STUDY:  Willamette Valley, Oregon
DEVELOPMENTAL THRESHOLDS
  LOWER:  50.0F  (10.0C)
  UPPER:  86.0   (30.0)
METHOD OF CALCULATION:  Growing Degree-Days
CUTOFF METHOD:          Substitution (similar to horizontal cutoff)
DEGREE-DAY ACCUMULATIONS REQUIRED FOR EACH STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT
  BIOFIX:  Date of Planting (input by user or default date of May 1)
		   
                                         DD (F)     DD (C)
  FIRST EMERGENCE FROM SOIL              104.0       57.8
  5 LEAF STAGE                           308.0      171.1
  7 LEAF STAGE                           445.0      247.2
  9 LEAF STAGE                           617.0      342.8
  11 LEAF STAGE                          772.0      428.9
  5 INCH TASSELS                         883.0      490.6
  10 INCH TASSELS                        960.0      533.3
  5% SILK EMERGENCE                     1005.0      558.3
  50% SILK EMERGENCE                    1062.0      590.0
  95% SILK EMERGENCE                    1145.0      636.1
  50% BROWN SILKS DEVELOP               1288.0      715.6
  95% BROWN SILKS DEVELOP               1412.0      784.4
  FRESH MARKET HARVEST                  1539.0      855.0
  PROCESSING MARKET HARVEST             1597.0      887.2

Variegated Cutworm Model (Coop 1987)

PRIMARY REFERENCE:
Coop 1987 - Abstract

OTHER MODEL REFERENCES AT: U. C. Davis Catalog of Phenology Models: Variegated cutworm

MODEL SUMMARY VERSION: Coop L. B. 1987.
Management of Variegated Cutworm in Peppermint.
PhD Thesis, Dept. Entomology, Oregon State University.
LOCATION OF STUDY:  Willamette Valley, Oregon
DEVELOPMENTAL THRESHOLDS
  LOWER:  41.0F  (5.0C)
  UPPER:  88.0F  (31.1C)
METHOD OF CALCULATION:  Single Sine
CUTOFF METHOD:          horizontal
DEGREE-DAY ACCUMULATIONS REQUIRED FOR EACH STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT
  HOST:  Peppermint
  SET OUT TRAPS:  May 1 (flight occurring earlier can affect other crops)
  BIOFIX:  May 1
		   
                                         DD (F)     DD (C)
  PEAK MOTH CATCH IN PHEROMONE TRAPS:    500.0      277.8
  PEAK EGG LAYING:                       900.0      500.0
  PEAK 1ST INSTAR LARVAE:               1150.0      638.9
  END OF OW GENERATION ADULT FLIGHT:    1300.0      722.2
  PEAK 3RD INSTAR LARVAE:               1450.0      805.6
  PEAK 5TH INSTAR LARVAE:               1900.0     1055.6
  PEAK PUPATION:                        2100.0     1166.6

Western Cherry Fruit Fly Model (AliNiazee 1979)

PRIMARY REFERENCE:
AliNiazee 1979 - Abstract

OTHER MODEL REFERENCES AT: U. C. Davis Catalog of Phenology Models: Western cherry fruit fly

MODEL SUMMARY VERSION:  AliNiazee, M. T.  1979.
A computerized phenology model for predicting biological events of Rhagoletis
indifferens  (Diptera: Tephritidae).  Can. Ent. 111: 1101-1109.
LOCATION OF STUDY:  Albany, Oregon (field studies)
DEVELOPMENTAL THRESHOLD
  LOWER:  41.0F  (5.0C)
METHOD OF CALCULATION:  Simple averaging (also known as Max-Min method)
DEGREE-DAY ACCUMULATIONS REQUIRED FOR EACH STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT
  START DATE:  March 1                   DD (F)     DD (C)
  FIRST ADULT SPRING EMERGENCE:           831.6      462.0
  BEGINNING OF EGG-LAYING:                973.8      541.0
  EGG HATCH:                             1069.2      594.0
  50% ADULT SPRING EMERGENCE:            1135.8      631.0
  PEAK EGG-LAYING:                       1233.0      685.0
  PUPATION:                              1431.0      795.0

Walnut Husk Fly Model (Kusana & AliNiazee 1997)

MODEL SUMMARY VERSION:  Kusana, A. & M. T. AliNiazee, 1997.
A thermal summation model for the phenology of Rhagoletis
completa  (Diptera: Tephritidae).  J. Entomol. Soc. Brit. Columbia 94: 13-18.
LOCATION OF STUDY:  Corvallis, Oregon (Lab & field studies)
DEVELOPMENTAL THRESHOLD
  LOWER:  41.0F  (5.0C)
METHOD OF CALCULATION:  Single Sine Curve (Baskerville-Emins)
DEGREE-DAY ACCUMULATIONS REQUIRED FOR EACH STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT
  START DATE:  March 1                   DD (F)     DD (C)
  FIRST ADULT SPRING EMERGENCE:          1890        1050
  MATURE FEMALES:                        2219        1233
  BEGINNING OF EGG-LAYING:               2480        1378
  1ST EGG HATCH:                         2700        1500
  10% ADULT EMERGENCE:                   2731        1517
  50% ADULT EMERGENCE:                   3152        1751
  90% ADULT EMERGENCE:                   3411        1895
  1ST LARVAL EXIT:                       3461        1923
  100% ADULT EMERGENCE:                  3956        2195

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This project funded in part by a grant from the USDA-Western Regional IPM program.

This page on-line since July 1, 1997
Last updated Feb 11, 2007
Contact Len Coop at coopl@bcc.orst.edu if you have any questions or comments about these web pages.