Online Phenology Models and Degree-day Calculator
immaturedamagepupaadult
orange tortrix (mild winter) [small fruit]
insect model of Knight (1988)


Output from uspest.org/wea insect degree-day/phenology model program:
	Heat Units and predictions of key events from daily weather data
==============================MODEL INPUTS================================ Model species/general links: orange tortrix (mild winter) [small fruit] Type: insect Model source/other links: Knight (1988) Calculation method: single sine Lower threshold: 41 degrees Fahrenheit Setting upper threshold to: 130 F (default) Directions for starting/BIOFIX: calendar date No starting/BIOFIX date, set to: default date 1 1 No ending date, set to: default date 12 31 Model validation status: partly validated Region of known use: Pacific Northwest ==============================EVENTS TABLE================================ 1. 850 DDs after biofix: peak pheromone trap catch 2. 950 DDs after biofix: peak female adult emergence 3. 1000 DDs after biofix: peak egg laying 4. 1270 DDs after biofix: peak egg hatch 5. 2070 DDs after biofix: peak in density large larvae ==============================MODEL OUTPUT================================ Weather station: 2018 KSLE METAR Salem: McNary Field OR Lat:44.9078 Long:-122.9950 Elev:210 mn day max min precip DD41 CUMDD41 event -- --- ----- ----- ------ ---- ------- ------- 1 1 46.40 26.60 0.00 1.23 1.2 * START * 1 2 46.40 32.00 0.00 1.46 2.7 1 3 46.90 33.80 0.00 1.77 4.5 1 4 46.90 33.80 0.13 1.77 6.2 1 5 54.00 39.20 0.46 5.87 12.1 1 6 51.80 35.60 1.12 4.07 16.2 1 7 48.20 37.40 0.01 2.72 18.9 1 8 45.00 35.60 0.41 1.16 20.1 1 9 51.80 42.10 0.23 5.95 26.0 1 10 50.00 42.10 0.09 5.05 31.1 1 11 55.90 48.20 0.97 11.05 42.1 1 12 55.90 48.90 0.64 11.40 53.5 1 13 60.80 37.90 0.00 8.84 62.3 1 14 60.80 35.10 0.00 8.18 70.5 1 15 57.20 35.10 0.18 6.48 77.0 1 16 55.90 42.10 0.02 8.00 85.0 1 17 63.00 41.00 0.91 11.00 96.0 1 18 51.80 42.10 0.50 5.95 102.0 1 19 48.20 41.00 0.04 3.60 105.6 1 20 48.90 41.00 0.01 3.95 109.5 1 21 51.80 41.00 0.09 5.40 114.9 1 22 51.80 37.40 0.24 4.38 119.3 1 23 52.00 39.20 1.28 4.89 124.2 1 24 52.00 37.90 0.32 4.58 128.8 1 25 46.90 37.00 0.33 2.08 130.8 1 26 46.90 39.00 0.23 2.39 133.2 1 27 53.60 42.80 0.30 7.20 140.4 1 28 62.60 48.00 0.00 14.30 154.7 1 29 57.20 46.00 0.57 10.60 165.3 1 30 52.00 39.00 0.47 4.84 170.2 1 31 48.90 37.40 0.00 3.03 173.2 2 1 53.60 39.20 0.04 5.67 178.9 2 2 61.00 42.80 0.01 10.90 189.8 2 3 60.80 44.60 0.01 11.70 201.5 2 4 61.00 44.10 0.00 11.55 213.0 2 5 60.80 37.00 0.00 8.61 221.6 2 6 57.90 33.80 0.00 6.58 228.2 2 7 55.40 35.10 0.00 5.64 233.9 2 8 57.90 35.60 0.00 6.91 240.8 2 9 52.00 42.10 0.00 6.05 246.8 2 10 50.00 35.10 0.00 3.20 250.0 2 11 48.20 33.80 0.02 2.29 252.3 2 12 50.00 28.90 0.00 2.62 254.9 2 13 51.80 23.00 0.18 2.93 257.9 2 14 51.80 35.10 0.09 4.00 261.8 2 15 52.00 35.60 0.00 4.16 266.0 2 16 50.00 41.00 0.07 4.50 270.5 2 17 53.60 42.10 0.05 6.85 277.4 2 18 44.60 33.10 0.25 0.88 278.2 2 19 41.00 30.00 0.00 0.00 278.2 2 20 39.90 28.90 0.18 0.00 278.2 2 21 41.00 28.40 0.05 0.00 278.2 2 22 41.00 27.00 0.01 0.00 278.2 2 23 41.00 21.00 0.09 0.00 278.2 2 24 48.90 35.60 0.10 2.78 281.0 2 25 46.40 35.10 0.47 1.68 282.7 2 26 48.20 28.90 0.00 1.95 284.6 2 27 46.90 30.20 0.00 1.55 286.2 2 28 46.40 41.00 0.61 2.70 288.9 3 1 46.40 37.40 0.12 1.91 290.8 3 2 51.80 35.60 0.03 4.07 294.9 3 3 50.00 30.20 0.00 2.71 297.6 3 4 50.00 28.40 0.01 2.59 300.2 3 5 55.40 37.00 0.11 6.01 306.2 3 6 55.90 30.00 0.00 5.14 311.3 3 7 52.00 33.80 0.00 3.91 315.2 3 8 55.40 39.00 0.29 6.50 321.7 3 9 53.60 35.60 0.00 4.90 326.6 3 10 61.00 30.20 0.01 7.42 334.1 3 11 66.90 37.40 0.00 11.69 345.8 3 12 72.00 35.60 0.00 13.70 359.4 3 13 57.20 44.60 0.58 9.90 369.3 3 14 55.40 36.00 0.89 5.81 375.2 3 15 53.60 35.60 0.04 4.90 380.1 3 16 54.00 34.00 0.02 4.83 384.9 3 17 51.10 39.90 0.15 4.65 389.5 3 18 55.40 35.10 0.08 5.64 395.2 3 19 57.20 32.00 0.00 5.98 401.1 3 20 61.00 28.00 0.00 7.12 408.3 3 21 57.20 37.40 0.60 6.96 415.2 3 22 48.90 35.60 0.77 2.78 418.0 3 23 42.80 35.10 4.56 0.38 418.4 3 24 46.40 35.60 0.13 1.72 420.1 3 25 53.60 35.10 0.01 4.81 424.9 3 26 51.80 35.10 0.01 4.00 428.9 3 27 59.00 44.60 0.00 10.80 439.7 3 28 61.00 39.20 0.00 9.32 449.0 3 29 61.00 35.60 0.00 8.38 457.4 3 30 62.60 37.00 0.00 9.48 466.9 3 31 64.40 42.10 0.00 12.25 479.2 4 1 52.00 35.10 0.06 4.09 483.2 4 2 53.60 35.10 0.00 4.81 488.1 4 3 57.20 30.00 0.03 5.71 493.8 4 4 64.40 46.00 0.04 14.20 508.0 4 5 55.40 48.00 0.28 10.70 518.7 4 6 72.00 53.60 0.12 21.80 540.5 4 7 62.60 48.00 2.02 14.30 554.8 4 8 55.40 43.00 0.29 8.20 563.0 4 9 66.20 39.20 0.00 11.90 574.9 4 10 63.00 48.20 0.21 14.60 589.5 4 11 57.90 41.00 0.40 8.45 597.9 4 12 52.00 39.20 0.30 4.89 602.8 4 13 55.90 46.00 0.01 9.95 612.8 4 14 59.00 48.00 0.35 12.50 625.3 4 15 51.80 42.10 0.74 5.95 631.2 4 16 50.00 41.00 0.12 4.50 635.7 4 17 55.40 42.10 0.06 7.75 643.5 4 18 60.80 41.00 0.00 9.90 653.4 4 19 68.00 35.60 0.00 11.75 665.1 4 20 68.00 37.00 0.00 12.12 677.2 4 21 63.00 44.10 0.00 12.55 689.8 4 22 64.90 37.40 0.00 10.71 700.5 4 23 78.80 39.00 0.00 18.09 718.6 4 24 84.20 39.00 0.00 20.78 739.4 4 25 82.40 46.40 0.00 23.40 762.8 4 26 77.00 48.20 0.00 21.60 784.4 4 27 53.60 50.00 0.14 10.80 795.2 4 28 62.60 44.10 0.11 12.35 807.5 4 29 60.80 48.00 0.01 13.40 820.9 4 30 57.20 46.00 0.00 10.60 831.5 5 1 59.00 45.00 0.00 11.00 842.5 5 2 73.40 39.00 0.00 15.41 857.9 peak pheromone trap catch 5 3 75.90 46.00 0.00 19.95 877.9 5 4 66.90 50.00 0.00 17.45 895.3 5 5 73.90 50.00 0.05 20.95 916.3 5 6 71.60 52.00 0.04 20.80 937.1 5 7 75.20 51.80 0.00 22.50 959.6 peak female adult emergence 5 8 77.00 44.60 0.09 19.80 979.4 5 9 68.00 48.00 0.00 17.00 996.4 5 10 64.90 46.90 0.01 14.90 1011.3 peak egg laying 5 11 66.90 46.40 0.00 15.65 1026.9 5 12 81.00 48.20 0.00 23.60 1050.5 5 13 93.00 50.00 0.00 30.50 1081.0 5 14 87.80 50.00 0.00 27.90 1108.9 5 15 73.40 50.00 0.00 20.70 1129.6 5 16 68.00 53.60 0.00 19.80 1149.4 5 17 70.00 50.00 0.00 19.00 1168.4 5 18 70.00 46.40 0.00 17.20 1185.6 5 19 68.00 51.10 0.00 18.55 1204.2 5 20 71.60 46.40 0.00 18.00 1222.2 5 21 75.90 44.60 0.00 19.25 1241.4 5 22 84.90 50.00 0.00 26.45 1267.9 5 23 77.00 53.10 0.00 24.05 1291.9 peak egg hatch 5 24 73.40 55.40 0.00 23.40 1315.3 5 25 68.00 52.00 0.00 19.00 1334.3 5 26 69.80 44.10 0.00 15.95 1350.3 5 27 79.00 44.60 0.00 20.80 1371.1 5 28 75.90 48.20 0.00 21.05 1392.1 5 29 69.80 46.90 0.00 17.35 1409.5 5 30 69.80 39.20 0.00 13.69 1423.1 5 31 64.40 46.40 0.02 14.40 1437.5 6 1 73.90 42.80 0.00 17.35 1454.9 6 2 84.20 46.00 0.00 24.10 1479.0 6 3 73.90 51.10 0.00 21.50 1500.5 6 4 72.00 51.80 0.00 20.90 1521.4 6 5 73.90 43.00 0.00 17.45 1538.8 6 6 78.80 46.00 0.00 21.40 1560.2 6 7 72.00 52.00 0.00 21.00 1581.2 6 8 69.80 51.80 0.19 19.80 1601.0 6 9 63.00 48.20 0.04 14.60 1615.6 6 10 57.90 48.20 0.32 12.05 1627.7 6 11 72.00 51.80 0.01 20.90 1648.6 6 12 81.00 46.00 0.00 22.50 1671.1 6 13 64.90 53.10 0.01 18.00 1689.1 6 14 69.80 55.00 0.00 21.40 1710.5 6 15 72.00 55.00 0.00 22.50 1733.0 6 16 79.00 51.80 0.00 24.40 1757.4 6 17 91.40 53.10 0.00 31.25 1788.6 6 18 84.90 57.00 0.00 29.95 1818.6 6 19 91.90 53.10 0.00 31.50 1850.1 6 20 87.80 60.10 0.00 32.95 1883.0 6 21 75.90 59.00 0.00 26.45 1909.5 6 22 78.80 59.00 0.00 27.90 1937.4 6 23 78.80 59.00 0.00 27.90 1965.3 6 24 91.40 55.40 0.00 32.40 1997.7 6 25 69.80 55.00 0.00 21.40 2019.1 6 26 75.80 46.40 0.00 20.10 2039.2 Px 6 27 77.30 53.20 0.00 24.25 2063.4 Px Pn 6 28 76.50 59.60 0.00 27.05 2090.5 Px Pn peak in density large larvae 6 29 82.90 62.60 0.00 31.75 2122.2 6 30 84.90 53.10 0.00 28.00 2150.2 7 1 81.00 55.40 0.00 27.20 2177.4 7 2 72.00 51.10 0.00 20.55 2198.0 7 3 78.80 46.00 0.00 21.40 2219.4 7 4 75.90 57.20 0.00 25.55 2244.9 7 5 88.00 53.10 0.00 29.55 2274.5 7 6 80.60 55.00 0.00 26.80 2301.3 7 7 82.40 51.80 0.00 26.10 2327.4 7 8 86.00 53.60 0.00 28.80 2356.2 7 9 70.00 51.80 0.00 19.90 2376.1 7 10 81.00 55.00 0.00 27.00 2403.1 7 11 90.00 55.40 0.00 31.70 2434.8 7 12 99.00 63.00 0.00 40.00 2474.8 7 13 95.00 60.80 0.00 36.90 2511.7 7 14 93.90 59.00 0.00 35.45 2547.1 7 15 99.00 59.00 0.00 38.00 2585.1 7 16 98.60 60.80 0.00 38.70 2623.8 7 17 91.40 60.10 0.00 34.75 2658.6 7 18 87.80 57.20 0.00 31.50 2690.1 7 19 75.90 57.00 0.00 25.45 2715.5 7 20 81.00 50.00 0.00 24.50 2740.0 7 21 82.90 50.00 0.00 25.45 2765.5 7 22 93.20 53.10 0.00 32.15 2797.6 7 23 95.00 57.20 0.00 35.10 2832.7 7 24 97.00 57.20 0.00 36.10 2868.8 7 25 98.60 57.20 0.00 36.90 2905.7 7 26 98.60 60.10 0.00 38.35 2944.1 7 27 91.90 57.20 0.00 33.55 2977.6 7 28 91.90 53.60 0.00 31.75 3009.4 7 29 99.00 60.10 0.00 38.55 3047.9 7 30 91.90 62.10 0.00 36.00 3083.9 7 31 91.90 57.00 0.00 33.45 3117.4 8 1 89.60 55.40 0.00 31.50 3148.9 8 2 75.20 55.00 0.00 24.10 3173.0 8 3 78.80 60.10 0.00 28.45 3201.4 8 4 86.00 55.00 0.00 29.50 3230.9 8 5 90.00 53.60 0.00 30.80 3261.7 8 6 91.40 57.20 0.00 33.30 3295.0 8 7 93.90 59.00 0.00 35.45 3330.5 8 8 93.90 62.10 0.00 37.00 3367.5 8 9 96.80 57.00 0.00 35.90 3403.4 8 10 91.40 60.10 0.00 34.75 3438.1 8 11 78.10 59.00 0.00 27.55 3465.7 8 12 81.00 55.90 0.00 27.45 3493.1 8 13 91.90 57.00 0.00 33.45 3526.6 8 14 91.90 57.20 0.00 33.55 3560.1 8 15 88.00 57.00 0.00 31.50 3591.6 8 16 84.20 57.00 0.00 29.60 3621.2 8 17 82.40 50.00 0.00 25.20 3646.4 8 18 88.00 50.00 0.00 28.00 3674.4 8 19 88.00 55.00 0.00 30.50 3704.9 8 20 82.40 55.00 0.00 27.70 3732.6 8 21 95.00 57.20 0.00 35.10 3767.7 8 22 93.20 55.40 0.00 33.30 3801.0 8 23 70.00 53.10 0.00 20.55 3821.6 8 24 73.40 53.10 0.00 22.25 3843.8 8 25 75.20 46.40 0.00 19.80 3863.6 8 26 70.00 60.10 0.00 24.05 3887.7 8 27 78.10 60.10 0.00 28.10 3915.8 8 28 90.00 51.10 0.00 29.55 3945.3 8 29 86.00 53.10 0.00 28.55 3973.9 8 30 75.00 54.00 0.00 23.50 3997.4 8 31 80.10 57.00 0.00 27.55 4024.9 9 1 75.90 50.00 0.00 21.95 4046.9 9 2 82.90 50.00 0.00 25.45 4072.3 9 3 80.60 53.10 0.00 25.85 4098.2 9 4 82.90 46.00 0.00 23.45 4121.6 9 5 89.60 51.80 0.00 29.70 4151.3 9 6 88.00 51.10 0.00 28.55 4179.9 9 7 84.20 50.00 0.00 26.10 4206.0 9 8 77.00 55.40 0.00 25.20 4231.2 9 9 80.60 48.00 0.00 23.30 4254.5 9 10 75.90 57.20 0.01 25.55 4280.0 9 11 69.80 51.80 0.06 19.80 4299.8 9 12 69.10 50.00 0.03 18.55 4318.4 9 13 69.80 48.20 0.02 18.00 4336.4 9 14 72.00 44.60 0.00 17.30 4353.7 9 15 68.00 46.00 0.11 16.00 4369.7 9 16 66.90 48.90 0.09 16.90 4386.6 9 17 70.00 44.10 0.00 16.05 4402.6 9 18 72.00 44.10 0.00 17.05 4419.7 9 19 73.90 42.80 0.00 17.35 4437.0 9 20 73.90 46.00 0.00 18.95 4456.0 9 21 77.00 46.40 0.00 20.70 4476.7 9 22 72.00 50.00 0.01 20.00 4496.7 9 23 71.10 43.00 0.00 16.05 4512.7 9 24 73.40 42.10 0.00 16.75 4529.5 9 25 82.90 46.00 0.00 23.45 4552.9 9 26 84.90 44.10 0.00 23.50 4576.4 9 27 84.90 50.00 0.00 26.45 4602.9 9 28 87.80 46.00 0.00 25.90 4628.8 9 29 68.00 51.10 0.01 18.55 4647.3 9 30 73.40 53.10 0.01 22.25 4669.6 10 1 73.90 57.00 0.00 24.45 4694.0 10 2 73.90 46.90 0.00 19.40 4713.4 10 3 68.00 39.00 0.00 12.72 4726.2 10 4 66.90 45.00 0.00 14.95 4741.1 10 5 57.20 44.10 0.17 9.65 4750.8 10 6 64.00 46.90 0.01 14.45 4765.2 10 7 57.90 42.80 0.09 9.35 4774.6 10 8 64.40 53.10 0.08 17.75 4792.3 10 9 68.00 48.00 0.00 17.00 4809.3 10 10 66.20 43.00 0.00 13.60 4822.9 10 11 71.60 39.00 0.00 14.51 4837.4 10 12 73.00 39.00 0.00 15.21 4852.6 10 13 73.40 42.10 0.00 16.75 4869.4 10 14 75.00 35.10 0.00 15.03 4884.4 10 15 78.10 36.00 0.00 16.79 4901.2 10 16 82.90 39.00 0.00 20.13 4921.3 10 17 78.80 41.00 0.00 18.90 4940.2 10 18 75.20 37.90 0.00 15.93 4956.2 10 19 71.60 37.40 0.00 14.00 4970.2 10 20 72.00 41.00 0.00 15.50 4985.7 10 21 69.80 39.00 0.00 13.62 4999.3 10 22 69.80 37.40 0.00 13.11 5012.4 10 23 62.60 37.40 0.00 9.59 5022.0 10 24 63.00 51.10 0.00 16.05 5038.0 10 25 60.80 50.00 0.07 14.40 5052.4 10 26 63.00 53.60 0.21 17.30 5069.7 10 27 64.90 53.60 0.72 18.25 5088.0 10 28 64.90 50.00 0.23 16.45 5104.4 10 29 61.00 44.10 0.32 11.55 5116.0 10 30 59.00 44.10 0.08 10.55 5126.5 10 31 59.00 50.00 0.51 13.50 5140.0 11 1 66.20 55.40 0.01 19.80 5159.8 11 2 66.90 51.10 0.03 18.00 5177.8 11 3 59.00 46.40 0.05 11.70 5189.5 11 4 64.90 46.00 0.07 14.45 5204.0 11 5 61.00 46.40 0.01 12.70 5216.7 11 6 59.00 39.00 0.00 8.27 5225.0 11 7 54.00 36.00 0.00 5.15 5230.1 11 8 54.00 34.00 0.00 4.83 5234.9 11 9 51.80 26.60 0.00 3.15 5238.1 11 10 50.00 35.10 0.00 3.20 5241.3 11 11 59.00 28.00 0.00 6.25 5247.5 11 12 57.90 33.80 0.00 6.58 5254.1 11 13 48.20 30.00 0.00 2.01 5256.1 11 14 57.20 28.90 0.01 5.58 5261.7 11 15 55.40 37.90 0.00 6.21 5267.9 11 16 61.00 37.00 0.00 8.70 5276.6 11 17 63.00 35.10 0.00 9.23 5285.8 11 18 57.20 30.20 0.00 5.73 5291.6 11 19 57.20 28.40 0.00 5.52 5297.1 11 20 52.00 26.60 0.00 3.23 5300.3 11 21 51.80 39.90 0.20 4.99 5305.3 11 22 53.60 46.00 0.53 8.80 5314.1 11 23 51.80 42.80 0.32 6.30 5320.4 11 24 45.00 35.10 0.00 1.13 5321.5 11 25 43.00 37.00 0.00 0.51 5322.1 11 26 61.00 41.00 0.39 10.00 5332.1 11 27 60.80 48.00 0.76 13.40 5345.5 11 28 54.00 42.10 0.79 7.05 5352.5 11 29 52.00 44.10 0.00 7.05 5359.6 11 30 51.80 39.90 0.72 4.99 5364.5 12 1 45.00 41.00 0.06 2.00 5366.5 12 2 48.90 37.40 0.02 3.03 5369.6 12 3 48.20 30.00 0.00 2.01 5371.6 12 4 52.00 28.00 0.00 3.33 5374.9 12 5 48.90 30.00 0.00 2.27 5377.2 12 6 48.20 25.00 0.00 1.76 5379.0 12 7 41.00 24.80 0.15 0.00 5379.0 12 8 43.00 35.60 0.01 0.45 5379.4 12 9 39.90 36.00 4.76 0.00 5379.4
DD accumulation on 12-9-18: 5379QA 99% ok    
  
This year is about  versus  QA
 DDs exceed full year 2017 ok
 34 days behind 2016 ok
 DDs exceed full year 30-yr normals ok
Forecast using:  Fox - IPPC forecast for KSLE data
 12 10  50.50 35.90  0.09   3.53   5382.9  0.09_0.01%_precip.    
 12 11  54.00 34.90  0.33   4.97   5387.9  0.33_0.42%_precip.    
 12 12  54.10 44.40  0.02   8.25   5396.2  0.016_0.87%_precip.    
 12 13  55.00 43.70  0.08   8.35   5404.5  0.082_1.11%_precip.    
 12 14  52.60 36.60  0.17   4.61   5409.1  0.168_0.21%_precip.    
Forecast using: 10 yr Hist Avg KSLE 2006-2015
 12 15  46.30 33.80  0.35   1.54   5410.7  *hist_fcst*    
 12 16  45.00 34.70  0.21   1.11   5411.8  *hist_fcst*    
 12 17  44.60 34.20  0.21   0.93   5412.7  *hist_fcst*    
 12 18  44.10 34.00  0.33   0.75   5413.4  *hist_fcst*    
 12 19  44.90 35.80  0.16   1.14   5414.6  *hist_fcst*    
 12 20  45.00 35.60  0.34   1.16   5415.7  *hist_fcst*    
 12 21  47.50 36.30  0.51   2.26   5418.0  *hist_fcst*    
 12 22  48.30 36.40  0.16   2.62   5420.6  *hist_fcst*    
 12 23  46.10 35.10  0.15   1.56   5422.2  *hist_fcst*    
 12 24  47.40 34.70  0.34   2.05   5424.2  *hist_fcst*    
 12 25  44.90 34.30  0.19   1.05   5425.3  *hist_fcst*    
 12 26  43.90 34.20  0.19   0.70   5426.0  *hist_fcst*    
 12 27  43.80 33.60  0.22   0.64   5426.6  *hist_fcst*    
 12 28  45.10 36.10  0.28   1.24   5427.8  *hist_fcst*    
 12 29  46.50 35.90  0.32   1.79   5429.6  *hist_fcst*    
 12 30  43.80 33.60  0.24   0.64   5430.3  *hist_fcst*    
 12 31  42.60 29.90  0.09   0.24   5430.5  *hist_fcst*    
orange tortrix (mild winter) model - Knight
Location: 2018 KSLE Salem: McNary Field
DD accumulation on 12-9-18: 5379 QA 99% ok  - show details 
  
This year is about  versus  QA
 DDs exceed full year 2017 ok
 34 days behind 2016 ok
 DDs exceed full year 30-yr normals ok
DateDDsEvent
 5-2-18 858peak pheromone trap catch
 5-7-18 960peak female adult emergence
 5-10-18 1011peak egg laying
 5-23-18 1292peak egg hatch
 6-28-18 2090peak in density large larvae
degree-day graph of orange tortrix (mild winter) [small fruit] Knight (1988)